سنسکرت زبان کا عظیم شاعر کالی داس

 سنسکرت زبان کا عظیم ادبی شاہکار ’شکنتلا‘ کالی داس سے منسوب کیا جاتا ہے۔ اس ناٹک کو دنیا کے عظیم کلاسیک میں شمار کیا جاتا اوراپنے ادبی قد کاٹھ میں شیکسپیئر کے ہیملٹ اور سوفو کلیز کے آڈیپس کے برابر مانا جاتا ہے۔ اس ڈرامے کا اُردو سمیت دنیا کی سبھی بڑی زبانوں میں ترجمہ ہوچکا ہے۔ کالی داس نے اس ناٹک کے علاوہ بھی متعدد ناٹک تحریر کیے،لیکن جیسی شہرت اس ناٹک کو حاصل ہوئی، ان کی کسی دوسری تحریر کے حصے میں نہیں آئی۔ یہ ناٹک راجہ دشونت کی کہانی کے گرد گھومتا ہے، جو جنگل میں شکار کے دوران ایک سنیاسی کی لے پالک بیٹی شکنتلا سے ملتا، اس کے عشق میں مبتلا ہوجاتا اور اس سے شادی کرلیتا ہے، لیکن بعدازاں اپنے محل میں پہنچ کر وہ اپنی یادداشت کھو دیتا ہے۔ ایک طویل عرصے کے بعد جس دوران میں اس کی بیوی شکنتلا بڑی کٹھنائیوں سے گزرتی ہے، وہ اپنی یادداشت پا لیتا اور شکنتلا سے جا ملتا ہے۔

یہ کہانی شکنتلا کی درد بھری زندگی کی روداد ہے۔ کہانی میں موڑ تب آتا ہے جب راجہ دشونت اپنی انگوٹھی کھو دیتا ہے، جس سے اس کی یادداشت جاتی رہتی ہے، اسی باعث وہ شکنتلا کو نہیں پہچان پاتا جو جنگل سے نکل کر اس کے محل میں آتی ہے۔ وہ اسے محل سے نکال دیتا ہے، تاہم کہانی کے آخرمیں وہ کسی طور اس انگوٹھی کو حاصل کرلیتا ہے، جسے دیکھ کر اس کی یادداشت لوٹ آتی ہے۔ یہ انگوٹھی وہ شکنتلا کو دے کر آیا تھا، جس سے وہ غلطی سے دریا میں گر جاتی ہے، جہاں ایک مچھلی اسے نگل لیتی ہے۔ ایک مچھیرا مچھلی کے پیٹ میں حاصل ہونے والی انگوٹھی پر شاہی مہر پہچان کر اسے دشونت کو پہنچاتا ہے ،جس پر اس کی یادداشت لوٹ آتی ہے اور اسے افسوس ہوتا ہے کہ اس نے اپنی بیوی کے ساتھ کیسی زیادتی کی۔ وہ شکنتلا کو تلاش کرتا ہے۔ ناٹک کے آخر میں شکنتلا اور دشونت کا ملاپ ہوجاتا ہے۔ معروف سنگ تراش کیمیلی کلاؤڈل نے شکنتلا کا معروف زمانہ بت بھی بنایا۔ شکنتلا کو بنیاد بنا کر یورپ میں متعدد ڈرامے بھی لکھے گئے اور اس ناٹک کو بھی مسلسل سٹیج پر پیش کیا گیا۔ بھارت میں اسی ناٹک کی کہانی کو فلم ’ستری‘ میں پیش کیا گیا۔

کالی داس کی زندگی پر مبنی فلمیں اور ناٹک بھارت کی مختلف زبانوں میں تیار کیے گئے۔ مجموعی طورپر کالی داس سے تین ڈرامے منسوب کیے جاتے ہیں۔ شکنتلا کے علاوہ ان سے منسوب کیے جانے والے ناٹکوں میں ایک ناٹک ’مالویکا اور اگنی متر‘ شامل ہے ،جو راجہ اگنی متر کی کہانی کے گرد گھومتا ہے، جو مالویکا نامی ایک کنیز کی تصویر سے عشق میں مبتلا ہوجاتا ہے۔ جب اس کی ملکہ کو خاوند کی اس دل بستگی کا علم ہوتا ہے، تو وہ طیش میں آجاتی اورمالویکا کو قید میں پھنکوا دیتی ہے۔ تیسرا ناٹک ’وکرم اور اروشی‘ ہے، جو پوروواس اور دیوی اُروشی کے عشق کی کہانی پر مبنی ہے۔ اس دیوی کو آسمانوں سے ایک غلطی کے نتیجے میں زمین پر بھیج دیا جاتا ہے۔ اس غلطی کے مطابق اس کی موت ایک فانی انسان کی حیثیت سے ہوگی اور وہ اس لمحہ واپس آسمانوں کو لوٹ آئے گی جب اس کا خاوند اس کے بچے کو دیکھے گا، تاہم بعدازاں مختلف واقعات کے نتیجے میں اس غلطی کو ختم کردیا جاتا ہے اور دیوتا ان دونوں کے پریم کو دیکھتے ہوئے انہیں زمین پر اکٹھے کی اجازت دے دیتے ہیں۔

ناٹکوں کے علاوہ کالی داس کی تخلیقات میں دو بڑی نظمیں بھی شامل ہیں، جن کے نام یہ ہیں: رگھوومسا اور کمارسمبھوا۔ ان کے علاوہ متعدد مختصر نظمیں بھی کالی داس سے منسوب کی جاتی ہیں۔ جرمن شاعر گوئٹے اور ہرڈر کالی داس کی نظموں اور ناٹکوں کے معترفین میں شامل تھے۔ سنسکرت زبان کا یہ پہلا شاعر تھا، جس کا انگریزی زبان میں ترجمہ ہوا ۔ بعدازاں جرمن اور دیگر یورپی زبانوں میں اس نظم کو ڈھالا گیا۔ انیسویں اور بیسویں صدی میں یورپ بھر میں کالی داس کی شاعری کے اثرات پھیل گئے۔ کالی داس کی نظم میگھا دت دنیا کی عظیم نظموں میں شمار ہوتی ہے۔ 1960ء کی دہائی میں پہلی بار اس کا انگریزی زبان میں ترجمہ ہوا، جس سے دیگر زبانوں میں اس کے ترجمہ کی راہیں کھلیں اور دنیا اس جوہر نایاب کے کمال فن سے متعارف ہوئی۔ سنسکرت زبان کا عظیم شاعر اور ڈراما نگار کالی داس بھار ت کے شہر اجین یا کالنگا کے قریب ایک گاؤں میں پیدا ہوا، تاہم ان کے مقام پیدائش کے حوالے سے ماہرین کی رائے مختلف ہے۔ اس کے کلام میں اجین کے لیے ان کی محبت اور اس کے قدرتی مناظر سے ان کے لگاؤ کی وجہ سے انہیں اسی علاقے کا باشندہ تصور کیا جاتا ہے، تاہم کالی داس نے کالنگا کے راجہ ہیمانگد کی مدح میں بھی نظمیں لکھیں، جس سے اس علاقہ اور اس کی راجہ سے ان کی وابستگی کا سراغ ملتا ہے۔ چند ماہرین کالی داس کو کشمیر کا باشندہ قرار دیتے ہیں، جس کی وجہ یہ ہے کہ انہوں نے اپنی شاعری میں کشمیر کی لوک کہانیوں اور استعاروں کو استعمال کیا ہے۔

محمدعاصم بٹ

(کتاب ’’دانش ِ مشرق‘‘ سے مقتبس)

نو برس کی بچی لائبریری کی منتظم

انڈیا کی ریاست مدھیہ پردیش کے دارالحکومت بھوپال میں غریب خاندان کی نو سالہ بچی مسکان اپنے علاقے کے بچوں کے لیے ایک لائبریری چلا رہی ہیں۔ شہر کے درگا نگر کے جھگی کے علاقے میں رہنے والی مسکان نے یہ لائبریری اسی برس ریاست کے تعلیمی مرکز کی مدد سے شروع کی ہے۔ مسکان حال ہی میں دہلی سے واپس آئی ہیں جہاں انھیں حکومت کے پالیسی کمیشن نے انعام سے نوازا ہے۔ کمیشن کی جانب سے انھیں ’تھاٹ لیڈر‘ کے ایوارڈ سے نوازا گیا ہے۔ اس لائبریری کی شروعات کے بارے میں بات کرتے ہوئے مسکان کہتی ہیں: ’مجھے پڑھنا بہت اچھا لگتا ہے لیکن یہاں کے بچّے ادھر ادھر گھومتے رہتے تھے۔ پھر ریاستی ایجوکیشن سینٹر کے کچھ افسر یہاں آئے اور انھیں کی مدد سے اس لائبریری کا آغاز 26 جنوری سے ہوگیا۔‘

ان کے اس کام کی وجہ سے مسکان کا ذکر اب اس علاقے میں ہر جگہ ہو رہا ہے اور جھگیوں میں رہنے والے لوگ ان کی کوششوں کو سراہتے ہوئے انھیں تسلیم کرنے لگے ہیں۔ مسکان کا خواب ہے کہ وہ بڑی ہو کر ڈاکٹر بنیں۔ وہ اس کے لیے پوری توجہ کے ساتھ محنت کرنے کے لیے بھی تیار نظر آتی ہیں۔ وہ سکول سے آنے کے بعد اپنی لائبریری ہر روز کھولتی ہیں۔ ان کے پاس اس وقت تقریبا 400 کتابیں ہیں۔ ان کی محنت کا نتیجہ یہ ہے کہ ان کی کتابیں مسلسل بڑھ رہی ہیں اور اب انھیں بیرون ملک سے بھی کتابیں مل رہی ہیں۔ اس لائبریری کی وجہ سے جھگی میں رہنے والے دوسرے بچّوں کو بھی پڑھنے اور تعلیم حاصل کرنے کی رغبت مل رہی ہے۔

اسی علاقے میں رہنے والے دیپک ساکیت بتاتے ہیں: ’اس لائبریری کی وجہ سے جھگی کے بچوں کو پڑھانے کے لیے اساتذہ بھی آنے لگے ہیں۔ وہ بچوں کو پڑھاتے ہیں اور اگر بچوں کو کوئي مشکل پیش آتی ہے تو اسے بھی وہ ٹیچر حل کردیتے ہیں۔‘ مسکان کے والد منوہر اہروار مزدوری کر کے اپنے خاندان کو چلاتے ہے۔ بیٹی کی کامیابی سے وہ بھی بہت خوش ہیں۔ انھوں نے کبھی نہیں سوچا تھا کہ انہیں اپنی بیٹی کے ساتھ دہلی جانے کا بھی موقع ملے گا۔

Tanwir Phool

Tanwir Phool   or Tanwiruddin Ahmad Phool  (born 1948 in Muzaffarpur, India) is the pen name of Tanwiruddin Ahmad Siddiqui, a Pakistani author and poet, writing in Urdu and English.

Education and career

He received his education in Karachi, Pakistan. He studied at the D. J. Science College and Urdu College, and graduated in 1971 from the University of Karachi. In 1973 he obtained a Masters Degree in Islamic history from the university. He worked at the State Bank of Pakistan from 1970 to 1997, until retirement.

Works

Phool has written poems in the traditional Urdu forms of the Ghazal, Rubaa’ee, and Dohay, as well as the traditional Japanese form of Haiku.

Anwaar-e-Hira

Anwaar-e-Hira is a collection of religious poems by Tanwir Phool. It was published in 1997.[1]
Some of the forms used are Musaddases, with every stanza having 6 lines, and Mukhammases, with every stanza having 5 lines. It was published by the Hira Foundation, Pakistan. The introduction, which includes biographical information on the author, was written by Professor Najmul Hoda of India.

Honoraria

  • Presidential Award for the Best National Poetry Book of 2005 from the Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan
  • National Book Foundation Awards for 3 years(from 2001 to 2003) from the Government of Pakistan
  • Government of Sindh Award in 2005 for contributions to children’s literature
  • Golden Jubilee Award from the Hira Foundation, Karachi, Pakistan, for children’s literature
  • Commendation Certificate for contributions to literature & poetry, from the Faran Writers Guild, Pakistan
  • Title of “Qamar-ush-Shu’araa” (Moon among the poets), given by the Shu’oor Academy, for poetic translation of the Qur’an
  • Title of “Aftab-e-Sipahr-e-Sukhan” (Sun of the Sky of Poetry) given by the head of the departments of Urdu, Arabic & Persian at Madras & Bihar Universities, India

Bibliography

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Saleem Kausar

Saleem Kausar  on August 1947, is a Pakistani Urdu poet.[2][3] He has published several poetry books. He has also written various title songs for different TV play serials. He has attended several poetry gatherings in different countries

Personal life

Kausar was born on August 1947 in Panipat, India. After partition, his family migrated to Pakistan and settled in Khanewal, Punjab, Pakistan. He received his primary and secondary education there. Later he with his family moved to Kabeerwala. In 1972, he shifted to Karachi, Sindh, where he has worked in various newspapers before joining Pakistan Television (PTV). He was retired several years ago.[4]

Literary career

Kausar began his literary career from Kabeerwala, where he met with well-known and national poets and learnt and practiced Urdu poetry. He also attended poetry gatherings. After moving to Karachi, he joined Urdu newspapers and wrote Qat’aas (quatrains), a form of Urdu poetry on a daily basis. He has written five collections of Urdu poetry. He became famous after his ghazal “Main khiyal hoon kisi aur ka” sung by various singers, was breakthrough in 1980.[5] He has visited several countries to participate the poetry gatherings, including Doha, United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Denmark, Middle East and India.[4]
A writer says;
“He may not be rich in the literal sense of the word, but he is generous enough to share the fruit of his craft to make people happy:
Piyar karnay kay liyay, geet sunanay kay liyay
Ik khazana hai maray pass lutanay kay liyay
(To love and to sing songs, I have a treasure to lavish upon others.)”[4]

Bibliography

  • Muhabbat aik shajar ha 1994[1][4] محبت اِک شجر ہے
  • Khali haathon mein arz-o-sama 1980[1][4]خالی ہاتھوں میں ارض و سماء
  • Yeh chiragh hai tau jala rahai 1987[1][4]یہ چراغ ہے تو جلا رہے
  • Zara mausam badalnay dau 1991[1][4]ذرا موسم بدلنے دو
  • Duniya meri aarzoo se kam het 2007[1] دنیا مری آرزو سے کم ہے

 

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Javed Akhtar

Javed Akhtar  born 17 January 1945) is a poet, lyricist and scriptwriter from India. Akhtar is a mainstream writer and some of his most successful work was carried out with Salim Khan as half of the script-writing duo credited as Salim-Javed between 1971 to 1982. Hailing from a family of freedom fighters, Javed Akhtar is the great-great-grandson of Allama Fazl-e-Haq Khairabadi, a notable name in the Indian Freedom Struggle and one of the main figures of the Indian Rebellion of 1857 who was hanged at the Kālā Pānī prison in 1861

Early life

He was born into a Muslim family in Khairabad, (Uttar Pradesh) to Jan Nisar Akhtar, a Bollywood film songwriter and Urdu poet, and singer Safia Akhtar, a teacher and writer.[citation needed] His original name was Jadoo, taken from a line in a poem written by his father: “Lamba, lamba kisi jadoo ka fasana hoga”. He was given the official name of Javed since it was the closest to the word jadoo.[1] Amongst his family members who are poets are Majaz, Eitbar Hussain bartar and Yadgar Hussain Nashtar. His grandfather, Muztar Khairabadi, and Maulana Fazl-e-Haq Khairabadi, a noted philosopher, poet and religious scholar of the nineteenth century.[citation needed]Having lost his mother while very young, Akhtar’s early years were spent in Lucknow, Aligarh, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh and Mumbai, mostly with relatives.[citation needed] He studied in Colvin Taluqdars’ College in Lucknow and the Minto Circle where he completed his matriculation from Aligarh Muslim University. After matriculation, Akhtar acquired a B.A. from Saifiya College in Bhopal. A debater in college, he won the Rotary Club Prize several times.[citation needed]

Career

Akhtar arrived in Mumbai on 4 October 1964. In his early years there, he wrote the dialogue for a minor film for Rs. 100. Occasionally, he worked as an assistant. He got a job as a dialogue writer on Yakeen which flopped. Javed Akhtar was born on 17 January 1945. Akhtar arrived in Mumbai on 4 October 1964. In his early years there, he wrote the dialogue for a minor film for Rs. 100. He was unsuccessful in his individual ventures till 1971.

Salim Javed(1971-1982)  

Salim Khan used to assist writer/director Abrar Alvi at first and Javed Akhtar used to assist Kaifi Azmi. Abrar Alvi and Kaifi Azmi were neighbours, from there on Salim Khan and Javed Akhtar became friends. Since their individual work was flopping both of them ventured into script writing and they decided to team up in 1971. The duo hit it off well and formed a script-writing team that came to be known as Salim-Javed. Salim used to form stories and plots whereas Javed used to help Salim with the dialogues for those films. They used to brainstorm and come to conclusions regarding the final draft of the film. Akhtar first joined with his friend Salim Khan to develop the story for Adhikar and Andaz. They have worked together in 24 film including 2 hit Telugu films – Manushulu Chesina Dongalu, Yugandhar and one Kannada hit film – Premada Kaanike. Though they split in 1982 ,due to ego issues, some of the scripts they wrote were made into films later like Zamana and Mr. India. The duo split up in the early 1982 due to ego issues and ended their 12 year professional relationship after which Javed Akhtar shifted to writing lyrics. Of the 24 films they wrote 20 were hits. The scripts they wrote but which were not successful at box office include Aakhri Dao (1975), Immaan Dharam (1977), Kaala Patthar (1979),Shaan (1980). Akhtar used to write his scripts in Urdu, which were then written out in Hindi by his assistant. Another assistant would type out a one-line summary in English. His association with Salim Khan lasted until 1982.

His work post split with Salim (1982-present)

Javed Akhthar started writing lyrics for films beginning with Silsila in 1981 and since 1982 has written lyrics for around 80 films and scripts for over 20 films.After this Akhtar wrote some scripts on his own but mostly moved into writing lyrics for films where he achieved success. Akhtar has attempted more serious Urdu poetry aside from writing lyrics for movies. A major set of his works were compiled in Tarkash, which was rendered into audio in his voice. Singers such as the late Jagjit Singh and the late Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan have sung some of his non-movie poetry. Javed Akhtar was a judge alongside Anu Malik, Kailash Kher and Sonali Bendre on India’s singer hunt Indian Idol 4. He is on the advisory board of the Asian Academy of Film & Television. Akhtar was nominated to the Parliament upper house Rajya Sabha on 16 Nov 2009.[2].[citation needed]
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Bashir Badr

Bashir Badr  born Syed Muhammad Bashir   on February 15, 1935, is an Indian poet of Urdu.

Biography

Badr was born in Ayodhya, India.[2] He is an alumnus of Aligarh Muslim University. He is married and has two sons Nusrat Badr and Masum Badr and a daughter.[3]

Career

Badr has written many Urdu ghazals. He has also worked as a chairman of the Urdu Akademi.

Awards

Badr has received the Padma Shri award in 1999 for contribution towards literature and Sangeet Natak Akademi. He has also received the Sahitya Akademi Award in Urdu for his poetry collection “Aas” in 1999.[1]
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Jazib Qureshi

Jazib Qureshi  (born August 3, 1940) is a prominent Urdu poet, writer and critic from Pakistan.[1][2][3] He has written many poetry books and works of criticism

Back ground

Qureshi was born on August 3, 1940 in Luchnow, India, where he spent his childhood.[4] When he was six, his father died. As a result he could not study further and worked hard for his living.[4] He migrated with his family to Lahore, Pakistan, in 1950.[4] He gained work in the press. He recommenced his studies and began writing poetry, attending literary gatherings and reading his poetry.[4] His first literary gathering was in the Shahi Qila, chaired by famous poet Ehsan Danish.[4]
Qureshi was helped to write poetry by Shakir Dehlavi, who belonged to Dagh Dehlavi school of thought.[4] Qureshi moved to Karachi in 1962,[4] he worked in different magazines and newspapers.[4] He qualified for master degree from University of Karachi.[4] Later he became a teacher in a college.[4] He also made a feature film, “Pathar Kay Sanam”, but it failed to gain a public response and experienced a financial loss.[4]

Literary career

Qureshi has written many books.[4] His first work of literary criticism was published in 1982,[4] and he also published poetry and prose books.[4] He is an admiredable poet at the literary gatherings.[4] As a poet and writer he has visited 35 cities across the United States,[4] and he has also visited Bahrain, Qatar, Dubai, Sharjah and Abu Dhabi several times.[4]

Bibliography

  • Takhleeqi Awaz تخلیقی آواز[4]
  • Ankh aur Charagh آنکھ اور چراغ
  • Shairee aur Tehzeeb شاعری اور تہذیب
  • Doosray Kinaray Tuk دوسرے کنارے تک
  • Meri TehreeraiN میری تحریریں[4]
  • Mein nay Yeh Jana میں نے یہ جانا
  • Pehchan پہچان
  • Neend ka Reshum نیند کا ریشم
  • Sheeshay ka Darakht شیشے کا درخت
  • Ashoab e JaN آشوب جاں
  • Ujlee AwazaiN اجلی آوازیں
  • Shakasta Uks شکستہ عکس
  • Shanasaii شناسائی
  • Jhernay جھرنے
  • AqeedataiN عقیدتیں
  • Mujhay Yad Haiمجھے یاد ہے
  • Naat kay Jadeed Rung نعت کے جدید رنگ
  • Meri Shairee Meri Musavari میری شاعری، میری مصوری[4].[4]
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Nida Fazli

Muqtida Hasan Nida Fazli popularly known as Nida Fazli   (born 12 October 1938) is an Indian Urdu poet

Early life

Nida Fazli was born in Delhi, India into a Kashmiri family and attended school in Gwalior. His father was an Urdu poet. During the partition of India, his parents migrated to Pakistan, but Fazli decided to stay in India.[citation needed]

Career

While still young, Fazli was passing by a Hindu temple where a bhajan singer was singing a composition of Surdas about Radha sharing her sorrow with her maids at being separated from her beloved Krishna. The poetic beauty of the Pad, relating to the close rapport and bonding between human beings, inspired Nida to begin writing poems.[citation needed]
During that period, he felt that there were limitations in Urdu poetry. He absorbed the essence of Mir and Ghalib to express what he intended. He was fascinated by the lyrical mood of Meera and Kabir and widened his knowledge of poetry by studying T.S. Eliot, Gogol, Anton Chekhov and Takasaki.

Bollywood

He moved to Mumbai in search of a job in 1964. In the early days of his career, he wrote in Dharmayug and Blitz dialects. His poetic style attracted the notice of filmmakers and writers of Hindi and Urdu literature. He was often invited to Mushairas, the prestigious recitation sessions of one’s own poetry.
He became known among readers and ghazal singers for his elegant presentation and exclusive use of colloquial language for ghazals, dohaas and nazms, while avoiding ornate Persian imagery and compound words to simplify his poetry. He wrote the famous couplet: ‘Duniya jise kehte hain jaadu kaa Khilona hai Mil jaaye to mitti hai kho jaaye to sona hai’. Some of his famous film songs include Aa bhi jaa (Sur), Tu is tarah se meri zindagi mein (Aap To Aise Na The) and Hosh waalon ko khabar Kya (Sarfarosh).

Career

He wrote essays critical of contemporary poets of the sixties in his book Mulaqatein which outraged poets including Sahir Ludhianvi, Ali Sardar Jafri and Kaifi Azmi. As a result, he was boycotted in some poetic sessions.
His career improved when Kamal Amrohi, a filmmaker, approached him. The original songwriter Jan Nisar Akhtar working on the film Razia Sultan (1983) had died before completing the project. Nida wrote the final two songs and attracted other Hindi filmmakers[citation needed].
His celebrated lyrics were also used in Aap to aise na the, Is Raat Ki Subah Nahin (1996) and Gudiya.
He wrote the title song of TV serials like “Sailaab”, “Neem ka Ped“, “Jaane Kya Baat Hui” and “Jyoti“. The composition “Koi Akelaa Kahaan” is another popular composition sung by Kavita Krishnamurthy. His ghazals and other compositions are sung by notable artists of the day. He teamed up with Jagjit Singh in 1994 to bring an album named Insight, which got appreciation for its soulful poetry and music.
He recently wrote columns for BBC Hindi website on various contemporary issues and literature.[3]
Mirza Ghalib‘s works often get mentioned by him.[4]

Style

“Hum laboN se keh naa paaye, unse haal-e-dil kabhi,
Aur wo samjhe nahiN, ye khamoshi kya cheez hai”
My lips were never able to express the state of my heart,
And she failed to understand what my silence meant.
– Nida Fazli : Film Sarfarosh
Nida Fazli is a poet of various moods and to him the creative sentiment and inner urge are the sources of poetry. He thinks that the feeling of a poet is similar to an artist: like a painter or a musician.[citation needed] In contrast he found lyric writing a mechanical job as he had to fulfil the demands of the script and the director. Later he accepted the practical necessity of money which comes from lyric writing and helps one to ponder on creative work.[citation needed]
He published his first collection of Urdu poetry in 1969.[citation needed] Childhood imagery persistently reflects in his poetry as elements of nostalgia. Primary themes which run through his poetry are contradictions in life, the search for purpose, nuances of human relationships, differences between practice and preaching, and the groping for that which is lost.[citation needed]

Contribution towards communal harmony

Nida Fazli disagrees with the partition of India and has spoken out against the communal riots, politicians and fundamentalism.[citation needed] During the riots of December 1992 he had to take shelter in his friend’s house due to security concerns.[citation needed]
He has been honoured with the National Harmony Award for writing on communal harmony.[citation needed] He has 24 books to his credit in Urdu, Hindi and Gujarati— some of which are assigned as school textbooks in Maharashtra. He received the Mir Taqi Mir award for his autobiographical novel Deewaron Ke Bich[citation needed] from the Government of M.P.[clarification needed] His best known works are: Mor Naach, Ham Qadam, and Safar Me Dhoop To Hogi.[citation needed]

List of works

Poetry collection

  • Lafzon ke phool
  • Mor Naach
  • Aankh aur Khwab ke Darmiyaan
  • Safar mein dhoop to hogi
  • khoya hua sa kuch
  • Duniya ek khilona hai

Award

Filmography

Nida Fazli worked as lyricist for
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Gulzar

Sampooran Singh Kalra (born 18 August 1934), known popularly by his pen name Gulzar, is an Indian poet, lyricist and director.[1] He primarily writes in Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu) and Punjabi; besides several dialects of Hindi such as Braj Bhasha, Khariboli, Haryanvi and Marwari. Gulzar was awarded the Padma Bhushan in 2004 for his contribution to the arts and the Sahitya Akademi Award in 2002. He has won a number of National Film Awards and 20 Filmfare Awards. At the 81st Academy Awards, he won the Academy Award for Best Original Song for “Jai Ho” (shared with A.R.Rahman), for the film Slumdog Millionaire. On 31 January 2010, the same song won him a Grammy Award in the category of Grammy Award for Best Song Written for a Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media.
 
Gulzar’s poetry is partly published in three compilations: Chand Pukhraaj Ka, Raat Pashminey Ki and Pandrah Paanch Pachattar (15-05-75). His short stories are published in Raavi-paar (also known as Dustkhat in Pakistan) and Dhuan (smoke). As a lyricist, Gulzar is best known for his association with the music directors Rahul Dev Burman, A. R. Rahman and Vishal Bhardwaj. He has also worked with other leading Bollywood music directors including Sachin Dev Burman, Salil Chowdhury, Shankar Jaikishan, Hemant Kumar, Laxmikant-Pyarelal, Madan Mohan, Rajesh Roshan, Anu Malik, and Shankar–Ehsaan–Loy. Along with lyrics, he has also contributed in many films as script, story and dialogue writer. Films directed by him have also won numerous awards and have been critically acclaimed. He also had worked on small screen by creating series Mirza Ghalib and Tahreer Munshi Premchand ki among others. He wrote lyrics for several Doordarshan serials including Hello Zindagi, Potli Baba ki and Jungle Book.

Early life

Gulzar was born in a Kalra Arora Sikh family, to Makhan Singh Kalra and Sujan Kaur, in Dina, Jhelum District, British India, in what is now Pakistan. Before becoming an established writer, Sampooran worked in Mumbai as a car mechanic in a garage.[2] His father rebuked him from becoming a writer saying “As a writer you will have to depend on your brothers”.[3] He took the pen name Gulzar Deenvi after becoming an author.

Career

Gulzar is best known in India as a lyricist for songs that form an integral part of Bollywood. He began his career under the directors Bimal Roy and Hrishikesh Mukherjee. His book Ravi Paar has a narrative of Bimal Roy and the agony of creation. Gulzar started his career as a songwriter with the music director Sachin Dev Burman for the movie Bandini (1963).[4] Shailendra who has penned rest of the songs of the movie urged Gulzar to write the song “Mora Gora Ang Layle”. This was picturised on Nutan. Gulzar’s most successful songs as a lyricist came out from his association with Sachin Dev Burman‘s son Rahul Dev Burman, whom he described as the anchor in his life.[5]Gulzar has had award-winning associations with the music directors Salil Chowdhury (Anand, Mere Apne), Madan Mohan (Mausam) and more recently with Vishal Bhardwaj (Maachis, Omkara, Kaminey), A. R. Rahman (Dil Se.., Guru, Slumdog Millionaire, Raavan) and Shankar–Ehsaan–Loy (Bunty aur Babli).
 
Gulzar was a song writer or dialogue writer for several Doordarshan programmes for kids such as Jungle Book, Alice in Wonderland, Guchche and Potli Baba Ki with Vishal Bhardwaj. He has more recently written and narrated for the children’s audiobook series Karadi Tales.[6] For the peace campaign (Aman ki Asha) jointly started by India’s and Pakistan’s leading media houses, he wrote the anthem “Nazar Main Rehte Ho”, which was recorded by Shankar Mahadevan and Rahat Fateh Ali Khan.[7]Gulzar has written ghazals for Ghazal Maestro Jagjit Singh’s albumbs “Marasim” and “Koi Baat Chale”. Both these albums were a great success.

As director

After writing dialogues and screenplay for films like Aashirwad, Anand, Khamoshi and more, Gulzar directed his first film Mere Apne(1971). The film was a remake of Tapan Sinha‘s Bengali film Apanjan(1969). Meena Kumari played the lead role of Anandi Devi, an old widow caught in between the local fights of unemployed & tormented youngsters. Anandi Devi’s death in one of the fights makes them realize the futility of violence. The film was rated “Above Average” at the Box Office.[8] He then directed Parichay and Koshish. Parichay was based on a Bengali novel, Rangeen Uttarain by Raj Kumar Maitra[9] and inspired from the Hollywood film The Sound of Music. Written by Gulzar, Koshish told a story full of struggle of a deaf-dumb couple. Sanjeev Kumar won National Film Award for Best Actor for his performance in it.[10] Year 1973 saw his another directorial venture named Achanak. Inspired by the real-life sensational 1958 murder case KM Nanavati v State of Maharashtra,[11] the story writer K.A. Abbas earned a Filmfare nomination for Best Story.
 
Gulzar’s Aandhi, based on the Hindi novel “Kaali Aandhi” by Kamleshwar, told a story of a couple separated against the backdrop of politics. Along with various wins and nominations, the film also won Filmfare Critics Award for Best Movie. Although believed to be based on the life of Ex-Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, the film was based on life of Tarkeshwari Sinha.[12] However in the 1975’s emergency, the film was banned from theatres.[9] Inspired from Sharat Chandra Chattopadhyay‘s Pandit Mashay was his next film Khushboo. Mausam that won National Award for 2nd Best Feature Film,[13] Filmfare Best Movie and Filmfare Best Director awards, along with other six Filmfare nominations was loosely based on the story “Weather”, from the novel, The Judas Tree, by A.J. Cronin. Sharmila Tagore for her roles of Chanda and Kajli received The Silver Lotus Award at the 23rd National Film Festival. In his 1982’s film Angoor, Gulzar took the story of Shakespeare‘s play The Comedy of Errors.
 
None of the Gulzar’s film were “Blockbuster Hits” on the Indian Box Office. His films told stories of human relationships entangled in social issues. Libaas was a story of extra-marital affair of an urban couple. Due to its objectionable subject the film never got released in India.[14] Mausam pictured a story of a father who tries to improve the life of his prostitute-daughter. In Maachis, a young Punjabi boy pick up to terrorism to fight the situations only to realize its temporary nature. Hu Tu Tu dealt with corruption in India and how a man decides to fight it.[15]Gulzar uses “flashback” in the narration of his stories very effectively (Aandhi, Mausam, Ijaazat, Machis, Hu Tu Tu). He also has mutual partnerships with various actors and other crew. The Gulzar – Sanjeev Kumar partnership resulted in few fine films (Koshish, Aandhi, Mausam, Angoor, Namkeen) which represent Sanjeev Kumar’s finest work as an actor.[16] Actors like Jeetendra (Parichay, Khushboo, Kinara), Vinod Khanna (Achanak, Meera, Lekin) and Hema Malini (Khushboo, Kinara, Meera) worked with Gulzar to gain respectability as artists and delivered some of their best and most introspective work in films.[16] With his situational lyrics and quality music composed by various famous Bollywood musicians in Gulzar’s films, his songs have always been the key point. R D Burman composed songs for almost all the movies directed by him in the 1970s and the 1980s (Parichay, Khushboo, Aandhi, Angoor, Ijaazat, Libaas). Many of their popular songs were sung by Kishore Kumar, Lata Mangeshkar and Asha Bhosle. These include “Musafir Hoon Yaron” (Parichay), “Tere Bina Zindagi Se Koi” (Aandhi), and “Mera Kuch Samaan” (Ijaazat). Gulzar says,
“Music has a natural place in our lives. Right from the shloka you recite in your morning puja and the milkman who comes whistling on his cycle, to the fakir singing as he begs for alms and your mother humming around the kitchen…Music fills our spaces naturally. It will always be dear to us.” [16]
Although an Urdu writer, Gulzar’s directorial venture shows inspiration from various Bengali writers. In 1988, he directed an eponymous television serial Mirza Ghalib starring Naseeruddin Shah, shown on Indian television channel Doordarshan. About the serial he says,
“…My TV serial on poet `Ghalib’ was based on history, though the earlier movie version treated him as a myth.”[12]

As Poet

Gulzar has vast knowledge of Urdu Poetry. He is creator of a new type of stanza named as Triveni. Few examples of which are,
01-
“… ज़मीं भी उसकी,ज़मी की नेमतें उसकी,
ये सब उसी का है,घर भी,ये घर के बंदे भी,
खुदा से कहिये,कभी वो भी अपने घर आयें!”
02-
“…मां ने जिस चांद सी दुल्हन की दुआ दी थी मुझे,
आज की रात वह फ़ुटपाथ से देखा मैंने,
रात भर रोटी नज़र आया है वो चांद मुझे!”

 

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Shakeeb Jalali

Shakeeb Jalali  (October 1, 1934 – November 12, 1966) was a Pakistani Urdu poet. Shakeb Jalali’s real name was Syed Hassan Rizvi. His ancestors were from a small town, Saddat Jalali, near Aligarh, India. Ahmed Nadeem Qasmi says that Jalali was born on October 1, 1934, but his wife Syeda Mohiddisa Khatoon gives his year of birth as 1935 or 1936.[citation needed]Jalali was an only child. When he was ten years old, his mother died in an accident. This unexpected incident and suspension from his job due to Hindu Muslim conflict in India totally disturbed his father and died a little before the death of Jalali. He passed his Matriculation Examination from Badayun (Uttar Pradesh) and then moved along with his sisters to Rawalpindi.[citation needed] He passed Intermediate Examination from Rawalpindi and B.A. Examination from Sialkot.[citation needed]
 
He arranged publication of different urdu magazines, worked in many literary magazines and later moved to Lahore.[citation needed] Owing to economical crises, Jalali joined Thal Development Authority and was posted at Joharabad and Bhakkar.[citation needed]During this period he stayed at Sargodha where he committed suicide on railway tracks on November 12, 1966, due to an unexplained psychological disorder.[citation needed] He was married in 1956 and left behind a son Syed Hussain Aqdas Rizvi (Aali) and a daughter Hina Batool.[citation needed]His life as a poet began in 1947 (when he was only 15 years old). His poetry work was published after his death: Rooshni Ay Rooshni in 1972 by Maktaba-e-Fanoon and several additions by Mavara Publications and Kuliyat e Shakeb Jalali in 2004 by Sang-e-Meel Publications, Lahore.

Famous Poems in Urdu

  • “kam-tar na jaane”
  • “gale mila na kabhi”
  • “Jahan talk bhee yah sahra dikhai data haa”
  • “murja ka kali jjeel main”
  • “aa kay pather jo mara sahan main”
  • “utrain ajab roshniya rat khoab main”
  • “woo samna tha pher bhee kahan samina kahian hova”
  • “main shakh say ura tha sitaroon kee aas main”
  • “kinar aay aab khara khud say kah raha ha koyee”
  • “yadain hain apna dil kee ahla safar kay sath”
  • “malboos khush noma hain magar jism khokhala”
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